aviation (24)

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Airline flights in much of the world are organised through a system called "hub-and-spoke," invented by U.S. airline Delta in 1955; made widespread in the USA after that country's deregulation of the airline industry in 1978; and commonplace in Europe as well since the European Union finally eliminated the last of its own air-industry restrictions in 1997. The model is named after the basic design of a traditional wheel, where the "hub" is a central airport and the spokes are the flights comin

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Admittedly, inflight dining has not gotten a lot of love over much of the course of commercial aviation's history. Actually, early in that history, in the 1930s, multi-course meals were cooked onboard. However, as the postwar demand for flights took off in the 1950’s and 60’s and aircraft sizes (and therefore passenger numbers on each flight) grew, this soon proved impractical, and the complexity of cooking for hundreds of passengers in a tight space within a limited time frame prompted airline

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In today’s commercial passenger aviation, understandably it’s the aircraft that get top billing and most of the attention. But the airport systems that make their operation possible include a complex array of equipment, much of which is unglamorous and goes largely unnoticed by the flying public. And one of the key contraptions along these lines is a low-slung vehicle called a pushback tug or tractor.

As the name implies, this doughty workhorse of the tarmac goes into action when it’s time to

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A Question for Avgeeks: What Are 'Winglets?'

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At some point when you're approaching your plane you've surely wondered to yourself why the wings are curved, no? This design feature is called a winglet (also known as a wingtip device), and it's there not just to look cool but for an important purpose: to maximise aerodynamic efficiency. Interested in learning more? Read on!

If you're an aviation geek, you know that airplanes stay in the air thanks to the interaction of four types of physical phenomena:


Thrust - that related to the tractio

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Get the 'C' out of Travel

Fear of ‘C’ (China/Covid/Corona) virus. Ask, do I want to be in a crowded airport, take a flight wearing a mask, be in another crowded airport, perhaps in a country with lesser health controls, stay at an all-inclusive resort, line up at food buffets, join a tour bus with another 30+people, board a gigantic cruise ship with 1000’s of other travellers, land at ports for more crowded tours, get on a train, stay in ginormous hotels or visit countries that do not have acceptable health, safety and s

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by Javier Pedreira

Even with all the signs and signals on the roads and motorways, all of us have at one time or another gotten lost whilst driving. It would be natural to imagine, therefore, that in the vast expanse of the sky it would be quite easy to get lost without any signals for guidance. However, the fact is that there are indeed signals up there to rely upon.

Going back to the early days of aviation, it’s true that the intrepid pilots of the day did have to rely upon navigation by sigh

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When we are about to travel by plane we conduct a  several activities like approaching the check-in area, where a staff member expects us to handover a boarding card, and drop off our baggage. After passing through security checks, we reach at the boarding gate, where another staff member ensures that our boarding card is in proper order. In addition, another staff member takes us to the aircraft. In the intervening time, other employees have filled the aircraft with fuel, other workers have off

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How and Why Fear of Flying Can Start

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by Tom Bunn

When fear of flying develops, it's sometimes because there has been a bad flight. But, in many cases, difficulty begins for no apparent reason. The average age of onset is 27. The truth is, many of us become more anxious as we get older and more mature. As teenagers, when parents told us to be careful, we thought they were from some other planet! We thought bad things happen to other people, or in places far away. 

As we grow older and (hopefully) wiser – or as something shocking h

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L2F Aug 15 pic USA NY Rhinebeck Aerodrome


There are few avgeek treats quite as rare and wonderful as the chance to get up close and personal with restored, operational aircraft from the very earliest days of the history of manned flight, the early 20th century. That’s why a “living museum” in New York State’s Hudson Valley, extending from New York City north to the state capital Albany, has to count as one of aviation geekdom’s holiest nirvanas. 

USA New York Rhinebeck Aerodrome Red Hook


I grew up 20 minutes away from the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome, located on a rural back roa

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Airport Marshallers: Traffic Cops of the Tarmac

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Today we hit the tarmac to learn more about the important role played by the ladies and gents you see outside your aircraft window gesticulating up a storm. They’re called marshallers(known as señaleros in Spanish), and besides guiding planes whilst they’re on the ground, these individuals perform other less well known functions as well, such as cooperating with other airport authorities to monitor various vital technical procedures, and providing assistance in case of an unusual incident of an

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Landing Jetliners in Crosswinds



by José Miguel Rodriguez

Not long ago, this video went viral on YouTube, racking up more than 10 million views. Apart from the fact that the 1,200-millimetre telephoto lens thoroughly flattens both the foreground and background, making the airplanes seem suspended in midair, what on earth are these pilots up to? Specifically, what’s up with the bizarre landing technique

Believe it or not this technique is standard, by-the-book practice when there are strong lateral winds present during landing

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Landing Jetliners in Foggy Conditions

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There’s no doubt that landing a giant aircraft in fog is not among a pilot’s favourite things. Fortunately, many airports in the second decade of the 21st century are equipped with advanced instrument landing systems (ILS) sophisticated enough to avoid cancelling operations merely because of foggy conditions.

Pioneered as early as 1929, today’s ILS equipment allows an aircraft crew to perform a runway approach in low-visibility conditions – even in nearly zero-visibility if necessary – by keep

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The answer is, quite simply, yes. There’s a direct correlation between the type and number of coats of paint covering an aircraft and both its weight and aerodynamics — and therefore, of course, its fuel consumption. This, in turn, has an impact on the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere.

Airplane-paint-1.png?width=250Iberia is one of the first airlines in the world to utilise a new system of paint application which allows savings of some 30 percent in materials — not to mention time, as it requires only a s

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An Inflight Turbulence Primer

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by VadeAviones.com


At one point or another we’ve all experienced bumpy patches during a flight, and whether we’re nervous flyers or not, few of us enjoy it.

So what exactly is air turbulence, technically speaking? Wind, of course, is the movement of air particles in greater or lesser degree, and turbulence is produced when that movement is disrupted and disturbances appear in the form of vortices. This is caused by different meteorological situations, the most common being vertically develo

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The Skinny on Aircraft Evacuation Slides

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by VaDeAviones.com


If you fly with any frequency, a phrase heard over the public address system, “crew, slide arm and cross check” is likely to ring a bell.  That “slide arm” refers to activation for potential use of the inflatable evacuation slide required on all aircraft where the floor is at least 1.8 metres (6 feet) above ground level. These slides are manufactured of various approved forms of resistant plastic, similar in consistency to rubber, reinforced with various layers to minimise th

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Airline Maintenance Secrets Revealed

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by Javier Pedreira


That 
air travel is the safest form of transportation going is not mere happenstance but rather due to rigourous maintenance of equipment and exhaustive training of personnel.

Although in 2010 Iberia added a major maintenance hangar at Barcelona airport, since the 1970s the primary maintenance facilities have been headquartered adjacent to Barajas Airport in a suburban Madrid industrial zone called La Muñoza. This 220,000-square metre (54-acre) is where aircraft engines con

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On February 20, as crews were still struggling to raise the fuselage AirAsia flight QZ8501, Indonesia's top transportation official said the aircraft climbed at an extreme rate just before it crashed. The accident investigators have had time to study the flight recorder; we can assume they now know what went wrong on the doomed Airbus A320.

After being initially candid, why have Indonesian officials now decided that the preliminary report, due by the end of the January, will not be made publi

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by Javier Pereira

One of the first things we learn in school about geometry (more specifically, plane geometry) is that the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. Obvious, right? And yet…

The fact is, this obvious truism is only true in two dimensions, as on a flat map, which is how we usually think of the world. But when it comes to spherical geometry – and, unless you’re a Flat Earther, our planet is more or less a sphere – that’s simply not the case.

If you’ve ever tried to fla

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Airline Maintenance Secrets Revealed

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by Javier Pedreira

That
air travel is the safest form of transportation going is not mere happenstance but rather due to rigourous maintenance of equipment and exhaustive training of personnel.

Although in 2010 Iberia added a major maintenance hangar at Barcelona airport, since the 1970s the primary maintenance facilities have been headquartered adjacent to Barajas Airport in a suburban Madrid industrial zone called La Muñoza. This 220,000-square metre (54-acre) is where aircraft engines constantl

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What Planespotting Is All About

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by Jorge Guardia/VaDeAviones

Spectacular aircraft photos abound all over the Web these days–shots taken on runways, in hangars, taking off/landing, at cruising altitude. And many of us who glance at them, sometimes think, “how cool,” and move on.

And then… there are the planespotters, along with their closely related–and sometimes overlapping–cousins, aviation geeks (aka “avgeeks”). These gloriously obsessed souls are a dedicated breed in love with aviation and airlines, follow industry news an

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