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The Industrial Revolution ended long ago in the United States, but remnants of its impact are still palpable. Once temples of commerce, many cities bustled with sprawling factories, grand theaters, turn of the century office towers, majestic hotels, and regal apartment buildings woven together by pedestrian friendly street grids. Today, much of this ornately designed architecture is demolished or condemned. Over the years, speculative redevelopment schemes promised a return to their former grandeur. Too few materialized, but the downtown Springfield, in south central Massachusetts an hour and a half west of Boston, was fortunate to preserve much of its historic architecture by mostly escaping the Interstate Highway construction wrecking balls that cleared the way in so many other cities.